Document Type: Review paper

Authors

Economic Cost, Poor Sanitation, Safe Drinking Water

Abstract

The global freshwater constraints, population growth, and pollution of surface and underground resources have created major concerns for water managers. One of the freshwater supply methods is the desalination of seawater. Saltwater desalination is a process by which solutes are separated from sea salt water. This process is one of the major sources of water today, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, including the Persian Gulf and 40% of the world's salt desalination is in the Persian Gulf. Unfortunately, in most cases, untreated wastewater is discharged into the sea. This causes irreparable damage to the Persian Gulf ecosystem. In addition, the most significant adverse effects of desalination plants are high energy consumption, rising beach temperatures, beach occupation for installation for recreational and tourist uses, adverse effects on aquifers, air pollution, and oil leakage from facilities. In this review, the basis of the work of desalination plants, the environmental impacts of their effluent on coastal waters is investigated in a library method and solutions to mitigate their adverse effects have been presented.

Highlights

  • Impact of poor water and sanitation on household economy was investigated.
  • Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to assess the impact of poor water and sanitation on households economy.
  • People have not access to proper sanitation facilities in most of the rural settlements .
  • The diseases ratio was very high because of poor water and sanitation condition.
  • Unawareness of WATSAN related diseases affect adversely on household economy by hospitalization, transportation and medical costs.